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2020贵州教师资格证英语学科资料_定语从句语法详解

来源:中公教师网  时间:2021-01-22 16:39:57

中公教师网整理了定语从句语法详解,希望能够帮助考生备考教师资格英语学科考试,赢得。

一、定语

句子中修饰名词或代词的成分叫做定语。

定语可以由形容词,名词,不定式,分词,动名词或从句来充当。

eg: She is a beautiful girl. (形容词)

I met someone funny on my way to Beijing. (形容词)(修饰不定代词的定语后置)

He is an English teacher. (名词)

(名词作定语时一般用单数,例外的有sports, 如 a sports star)

I have a lot of work to do. (不定式)

The book written by a schoolboy is very popular now. (过去分词短语)

We can see the rising sun. (现在分词) = the sun is rising.

He is in the reading room. (动名词) = the room for reading

The boy who broke the window is Tom’s brother. (从句)

注意:1.形容词作定语一般放在所修饰的词前面;但当形容词修饰的是something, anything, everything, nothing, someone, everyone, everybody, somewhere等不定代词时,要放在这些词的后面。

present (在场的), absent (缺席的)作定语时需要后置。 students present / absent

2. 不定式做定语通常要放在被修饰的词后。

3 分词作定语时,即可放在所修饰词前,也可放在所修饰词后

1)分词前置:单独的一个分词作定语,一般放在所修饰词前。

He is a retired worker.  他是位退休的工人

2)分词后置分词在以下情况,放在所修饰词的后面

i. 分词词组; There was a girl sitting there. 有个女孩坐在那里

ii. 个别分词如given, left;

This is the question given.   这是所给的问题

iii. 修饰不定代词 something等

There is nothing interesting.  没有有趣的东西

过去分词作定语与其修饰的词是被动关系,相当于一个被动语态的定语从句。

Most of the people invited to the party were famous scientists.

= Most of the people who were invited to the party were from South Africa

二、定语从句(Attributive Clauses)

在句中做定语,修饰一个名词或代词,被修饰的名词,词组或代词即先行词。定语从句通常出现在先行词之后,由关系词(关系代词或关系副词)引出。

关系代词有:who, whom, whose, that, which等。

关系副词有:when, where, why等。

I like the books that are written by Mr. Green.

先行词 关系词

A. 关系词:

关系词通常有三个作用:引导定语从句,指代先行词,在定语从句中充当句子成分。

定语从句语法详解

Anyone who breaks the law will surely be punished.

1. 先行词指人时,定语从句的引导词:

(1)指人时,who和that都可以使用.

(2)who和whom都可以作定语从句宾语,但从句中的介词提前时,不能用who.

He is the man who / whom I talked to you about.

= He is the man about whom I talked to you.

(3)先行词是人时,只用who, 不用或少用that的情况:

a. 当先行词是one, ones, anyone时,引导定语从句的关系词一般只用who, 不用that如果先行词是someone, 也可用that

He is not one who is easily frightened.

I think Joe is the one who borrowed my peo.

The ones who tell lies won’t gain others’ trust.

Anyone who saw the accident should phone the police.

Someone who / that claims to be your uncle wants to see you.

b. 先行词是those时,关系代词一般用who不用that

Those who don’t wish to go need not go.

c. There be 句型中,修饰人的定语从句的关系代词一般只用who来引导

There is a certain old man in the village who none of us likes.

d. 若一个句子中有两个定语从句,第一个已经用that, 则第二个一般用who

The man that is talking with our teacher is the professor who gave us a report yesterday.

e. 当定语从句与先行词较远时,引导定语从句的关系代词一般只用who

I came across my first teacher in the store yesterday who was still beautiful.

f 非限定性定语从句只用who来引导, 不用that

He has a son, who is a doctor.

(4)当先行词是人,只用that不用who的情况:

a. 以who开头的特殊疑问句,定语从句的先行词如果是人,关系代词只用that不用who

Who is the girl that said hello to you just now?

b. 当先行词既有人也有物时,定语从句只用that来引导

They ofter talk about the person and things that they remember.

c. 当关系代词在定语从句中作表语时,只用that来引导

He’s changed. He is not the man that he was.

d. 当先行词被形容词的最高级修饰时,只用that.

This is the most beautiful lady that I have ever met.

e. 当先行词是other时,定语从句只用that 引导。

You can ask the old man or any other that was there at the time.

(责任编辑:贵州中公教师)

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